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探究中反思 反思中提高---从一次课后训练说起

发布日期: 2014-11-21   浏览量: 1874 字号:[ ]

广东省清远市一中孙维莉 (511500)

教完Unit19 3课后,我给学生布置了一道家庭作业题:从本单元选出5-8个单词,写一篇符合逻辑、语言流畅、语句通顺的五句话短文(把你所选用的词汇用下划线标出)。我出这道题的目的,一是让学生巩固本单元学过的词汇,二是考查学生在不同的语境中正确把握词汇的意义,从而创造性地运用语言的能力。第二天作业交上来后,我进行了认真批阅。开心的是,有部分学生不但具有丰富的生活常识,而且也有很强的运用语言的能力;与此同时,从学生的作业中,我也发现了普遍性的问题——学生习惯于用母语来思考问题,把英语单词与汉语直接进行字对字翻译,写出一些叫人啼笑皆非的句子。通过分析学生所犯的错误(error analysis),我也认真反思了自己的教学方法,这对我今后的教学很有启发意义。   

一、相信学生能力挖掘智慧潜能

先展示几篇学生作文

Although most body languages have ambiguous meanings in different countries, smile is one form of body language that receives universal approval. For instance, when a person wins a game, the smile you give him/her may be the best language that conveys your congratulations. If someone knocks you down accidentally, which means no offence, then a smile instead of a tight face is much better to show your forgiveness and kindness. In the absence of smile, the world would become colder and the love would disappear forever. So always keep in mind that smiling has a high success rate.

America used to be Britain’s colony. In 1783, American officially won her independence from Britain. In honor of the 100th birthday of American independence, in 1876 France gave away the Status of Liberty, which represents freedom and liberty of America. In 1787, America enacted its first constitution which tended to protect the rights of white men. As a result, the black people came to fight for their equal rights nationwide.

 When travelling, the tourist usually not merely sees the places of interest, but also purchases some souvenirs. Unfortunately, in some places, the sellers will raise the price of the souvenirs on purpose, which means the tourists may negotiate with the sellers for a discount. However, in most cases, the sellers will not approve of the price tourists offer. So the best way is to leave, which will make the sellers feel restless. Within ten seconds, the sellers will call you back and sell the goods at the price you offer provided that the price is not too low and still in the seller’s favor.

Sina Weibo, which first came into use in 2009, has become a popular medium nationwide. It has more than 140 million registered users, most of whom are young people. Some people who approve of it think they can easily share their feelings with a picture of caption, which helps to enlarge their horizons. However, others who are against it believe their competence of speaking is weakening in the absence of communicating face to face. Despite the argument, Sina Weibo plans to provide an English version by this year.

从学生的习作我们不难看出,只要老师放开手,给予正确的引导,学生就可以充分发挥其潜能,真正达到我们教学所追求的“学以致用”的目的。

二、认真分析问题寻求错误根源

下面再看几个例子:

1. It is explicit that he broke the glass unconsciously.

2. I was in a state of unconsciousness when someone patted me on the back.

3. The old saying “Practice makes perfect” means if we practice enough, we can get through something and make ourselves better.

4. We are easy to know nobody can do well in all aspects by birth.

5. Though that no pain but gain is what we all want, we all know we couldn’t get back anything without giving out.

我们先来分析前三个句子出现的问题。

在牛津辞典里explicit的第一个解释是 (a) (of a statement, etc) clearly and fully expressed (指说法等)明确而详细的。第二个解释是(b) (of a person) saying sth clearly, exactly and openly (指人)(说得)明确的, 直率的, 开诚布公的。从第一个例子中,我们可以看出学生错把 “clear” easy to see through; transparent 清澈的; 透明的)等同于 “explicit”

麦克米伦双解词典对 “unconscious” 的解释是:(ain a condition similar to sleep in which

you do not see, feel, or think, usually because you are injured 失去知觉的,不省人事的; (b)

used to talk about things you do without realizing you are doing them or without intending to do

them (行为)无意中做出的。在第二个例子中,学生错把 “unconscious”  等同于 “accidental or

by chance 偶然的(地),意外的(地)

而麦克米伦双解词典对“get through” 的解释是a manage to deal with a difficult situation or stay alive until it is over 熬过(困境);(bto reach a good standard to pass a test 达到(标准).从第三个例子可以看出,学生显然把get through 看成achieve的同义词。

4和例5 的问题是,学生直接用母语的思维方式来组词造句,这样的句子读起来很别扭,因为不符合英语语言的表达习惯。

比较符合习惯的表达是:

4 It is true that nobody is capable of doing anything well by birth.

As is known to us all, nobody is able to do everything well congenitally.

5Such is human nature that we want to gain much without making any effort. But, as a famous saying goes, “no pains, no gains”.

这几个比较典型的词汇错误反映出,学生在运用语言的过程中,一方面对英语词汇意思的把握有偏差,他们习惯于把母语的词汇意义直接等同于英语词汇所赋予的字面含义,认为同义词在任何情况下都是可以互换的;另一方面,用母语的文化思维方式来进行英语交流。因此,学生的错误可以归纳为以下几个方面:

1、被动机械记忆单词的方法占主流,死记硬背,只是一知半解。

2、只关注英文单词对应的中文意思,然后依托自己的母语概念储存,而忽略了英语所依托的文化思维方式。在运用英语时,只是“填抗式”地将该词编织到句子中。

3、以孤立单词为储存单位,忽略了“语块”(chunks)储存,不能有效地组织地道的英语句子,降低英语表达的地道性和流利性。

 

三、探索科学方法指导教学实践

从学生的这次练习中,我所得到的启示与偶以下三点。

1、尽量减少在英语词汇与母语词汇之间建立机械的联系

在词汇学习中,只知道英语单词相对应的中文意思和英语单词的拼写是远远不够的。正

如语言学家Allen 所言:如果学生只是孤立地记忆单词的意思,而不去观察它们在句子中的组合规律,那么他们必定会犯错误。所以说真正学会一个单词,通常要知道把这种语言作为母语的人是怎样使用的,以及这个单词使用的语境。否则,必然会妨碍或中断交流。1Medical advances ranged from discovering the causes of diseases under microscopes to surgical procedures replacing diseased organs with donated ones.(高二 Unit 20 L3) 在阅读学习过程中,教师的任务不只是让学生进行英汉翻译,还可以提出以下问题,启发、引导学生观察语言现象。

Could you underline the two collocations in this sentence? What do they mean?

What’s the noun form of “medical” and “surgical”?  What’s their grammar function here?

How is the word “disease” used? Does it have the same grammar function? What’s the difference?

What does “donated ones” refer to here?

 2 Percy Spencer, with 120 patents to his name, discovered microwaves when he was experimenting with radars and noticed a chocolate melting in his pocket.

教师就这个句子,可以提出以下的问题:

What’s the grammar function of  “with 120 patents to his name”in this sentence

Can you rewrite the sentence without changing its original meaning?

这样的学习避免了句子之间英汉直接翻译和死扣语法的教学模式,使学生对知识的接受学习,建立在一种积极主动的构建过程中;另一方面通过各种问题的设置,让学生意识到:词汇的学习不是孤立的,要注重它的语言环境和组合规律,从而为日后的语言输出做准备。

2、培养学生学习的主体意识和独立性

在高中阶段,教师的任务之一就是帮助学生成为一个能独立学习并对自己的学习负责的人。美国教育心理学家和教育家布鲁纳Jerome Seymour Bruner也强调学生不是被动地、消极的知识的接受者而是主动的、积极的知识的探索者。教师在教学过程中的作用是让学生在边试边做中形成一种能够独立探究的能力,而不是提供现成的知识。

我们选用的北师大教材,课文涉及的知识面较广,所以单词量较多,难度也随之加大,因此,对词汇的学习老师不可能、也不应该包揽一切。假如教师花一节课的时间讲解词汇的用法,结果有可能导致学生过度地依赖老师,而失去他们自己使用词典学习的机会。同时,课堂上也无法保证学生使用新词汇进行交流。我们的学生已经具有了一定的英语水平,积累了一定量的词汇,所以在学习单词时,教师一定要鼓励学生养成查阅字典的好习惯(一定是英英词典或者是英汉双解词典)。“The Oxford Student’s Dictionary of American English” and “The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English” 都是非常适合学生使用的词典。它们提供了浅显易懂的英文解释,有助于学生准确理解英语单词的意思。此外,这些词典就每一个英语高频词都附有很好的解说性的例句,清楚地表明该单词在现实生活场景中是如何运用的。更重要的是,通过观察这些例句,学生会发现这些单词的一些固定搭配(特别是动词和介词的搭配range from …to,  replace…with…)。再就是它们还帮助学生了解一个单词所具有的不同语法功能。例如:I bought a book. (在这里book 是名词) I’d like to book reservations at your hotel this weekend.(在这里book 是动词,词义是“预订”)

主动性(initiative)和独立性(independent)的学习方式无疑会使学生终身受益。

 3、教师应有意识地引导学生对不同阶段所学的词汇进行整理、归纳,并加强“语块”的输入,提高语言的流畅性。

根据故事情节的需要或语法学习的需要,在一篇课文中,会有很多单词,但为了系统地学习词汇,教师可以让学生准备一个词汇本,把同一类话题的单词整理归类。

比如:Transportation:  car, taxi, subway, plane, coach…

Occupation:  lawyer, clerk, professor, lecturer, accountant …

Solar system:  galaxy; Mars, Venus, Milky Way, universe…

按话题分类记忆单词,可以帮助学生系统地学习,也是比较有效的词汇学习方法。

信息时代随着语料库的发展,语言学家研究发现,英语中存在许多兼有句子和词汇特征的固定和半固定的语言结构,他们把其称作“词块”(Lexical Chunks)。大量研究表明“词块”加速了语言信息的处理,对促进语言输出的流利程度具有重要意义。Michael Lewis在他的有关词汇教学( “the Lexical Approach” “Teaching Collocation”)的书籍中都强调了词组搭配的重要性。他认为很多学习者感到听力和阅读难,其主要原因不是因为生词量过多,而是无法辨认的搭配词组的密度阻碍了对听力和阅读的理解(One of the main reasons that learners find listening or reading difficult is not because of the density of new words, but the density of unrecognized collocations)。学生只有加大对“词块”的学习,才能更好地掌握语言系统,并熟练地运用这种语言。所以让学生尽快地接触词块,不但有助于培养学生的语感,提高学习效率,而且可以帮助学生在现实生活中灵活自如地运用英语。

总之,在教学实践中,教师要强化学生的主体意识,变他们被动机械地学习为主动灵活地探究。只有教学方法科学有效,才能保证学生真正获得知识。

参考书目:Virginia  French Allen  Techniques in Teaching Vocabulary[M]

上海外语教育出版社  2002

 Lewis, M.  Teaching Collocation [M]   London  LTP   2000. 

Lewis, M.  The Lexical Approach[M]    London  LTP   1993.

Jerome S. Bruner   Toward a Theory of Instruction[M]

Harvard University Press   1966

麦克米伦高阶英汉双解词典[M]        外研社       2005

 牛津英汉双解词典[M]                商务印书馆   2002